churchesofnorfolk A-Z of Meaning of Church Lists.



Aisle, (in a church) a lower part parallel to the nave, choir, or transept, from which it is divided by

pillars. "The tiled roof over the south aisle"

Alb, This was a white linen garment with narrow sleeves covering the whole figure and extending usually a short distance along the ground.

Altar, the table in a Christian church at which the bread and wine are consecrated in communion

services. A table or flat-topped block used as the focus for a religious ritual, especially for making sacrifices or offerings to a deity.

Amices, These were piesces of white linen worn over the head in the manner of a hood and secured by tapes or strings passing round the shoulders.

Annunciation, representations are a regular subject for stained glass window scenes, when the archangel Gabriel brought Mary the news of the Incarnation, that she would conceive a child of the Holy Ghost (Luke 1. 26-38). A splendid annunciation may be seen in fine 15th century glass at Bale, near Fakenham, and a lovely 15th century carving in the porch at Great Witchingham. The Feast of the Annunciation is March 25th-or aka, "Lady Day", an important date too in the rural calender, when tenant farmers rents were due, and new tenancies were granted.

Antiphonal lectern. This literally means, before voice, is a sung verse immediately preceding the psalm or canticle for the particular office or service.

Apse, A large semicircular or polygonal recess in a church, arched or with a domed roof and typically at the church's eastern end. Another term for apsis.

Ambulatory, The ambulatory (Medieval Latin ambulatorium) is the covered passage around a cloister. The term is sometimes applied to the procession way around the east end of a cathedral or large church. This is usually behind the high altar.

Arcade, An arcade is a succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides. In warmer or wet climates, exterior arcades provide shelter for pedestrians.

Acolyte, person who carries the cross.Or a person assisting a priest in a religious service or procession.

Baldacchino, a ceremonial canopy of stone, metal, or fabric over an altar, throne, or doorway. (As with at Saint Peter Mancroft over the font)

Baroque, a window long and thin with an arch either end.

Beatify, Beatification is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name. Beati is the plural form, referring to those who have undergone the process of beatification.

Biers, Some churches and particularly, for obvious reasons, those churches with a long path between lynch-gate and church, have a platform to carry the coffin to and from the funeral service. These curious conveyances can often be seen, discreetly tucked away at the back of the nave or in a side aisle. Occasional ancient examples, but usually Victorian. (See separate page).

Billet, a moulding or decoration was particularly used in Norman work, it was formed by cutting notches in two parallel and continuous rounded mouldings in a regular, alternating pattern.

Bressummer, A bressummer, breastsummer, summer beam (somier, sommier, sommer, somer, cross-somer, summer, summier, summer-tree, or dorman, dormant tree) are load bearing beams in a timber framed building. The word summer derived from sumpter or French sommier, "a pack horse", meaning "bearing great burden or weight".

Burse or Corporas Case, The corporal (arch. corporax, from Latin corpus "body") is a square white linen cloth, now usually somewhat smaller than the breadth of the altar, upon which the chalice and paten, and also the ciborium containing the smaller hosts for the Communion of the laity, are placed during the celebration of the Catholic Eucharist (Mass).

Carrstone (Norfolk) Carstone, "Gingerbread" Orange coloured stone used in Norfolk. It is a soft sandstone which can be seen in the cliffs of Hunstanton a seaside in Norfolk. Carrstone is mostly seen in buildings in the north west of the county. On ancient example of its use is in an Anglo-Saxon tower on the other side of Norfolk at Bessingham nr Cromer.

Cartouche, Sculptural representation of a curling sheet of paper, seldom contained within a formal frame, Latin: Carta, paper.

Chalice, A large cup or goblet, the wine cup used in the Christian Eucharist, The constitution of archbishop Winchelsey lays upon the parishions the obligation of providing one chalice in each church, and the inventories show that his duty was well carried out as far as the archdeaconry of Norwich was concerned. Of 358 churches, three alone possessed no chalice, 344 churches in Norfolk have silver chalices, of which seventy-five were gilded, nine were specified as unspecified material gilded. There were gold chalices at West Walton and Little Ellingham.

Chalice Spoon,

Chancel, the part of a church near the altar, reserved for the clergy and choir, and typically separated from the nave by steps or a screen. At first very narrow, but later becoming wider and wider. The wider chancels are called ritual, the former narrow ones constructional, The normal consists of three bays.

Chasuble (casula, planetum, infula) was a large, conical, garment which covered the whole figure frm neck to below the knees

Chrismatory, Derived from the Greek word chrisma, meaning “anoint,” the same root word for Christós (or “anointed one”), the chrismatory was a receptacle for the oil used in sacramental rites of passage and church ceremonies. The use of oil in religious practice dates all the way back to the Old Testament, the first reference being to a ceremony anointing Aaron, the high priest, and his descendants. In the Gospel of Mark, the disciples cast out demons at the same time they anointed and healed the sick. Jesus himself is anointed in Bethany with an expensive ointment of “pure nard” poured over his head. Three holy oils were used for the sacrements and sacrementals of the church: chrism, the oil of exorcism and the oil for the sick. Usually these oils were referred to simply as Chrism and Holy Oil- Holy Oil including the oil of exorcism and that of the sick. On account of their solemn consecration by the Bishop, these oils were ordered to be kept securely under lock and key and were therefore commonly housed in a metal chrismatory or oil stock kept in a locked aumbry or cupboard in the chancel. (Locked chrismatories occur in 328 churches in Norfolk.

Ciborium, a receptacle shaped like a shrine or a cup with an arched cover, used in the Christian Church to hold the Eucharist., or a canopy over an altar in a church, standing on four pillars.

Clerestory, the upper part of the nave, choir, and transepts of a large church, containing a series of windows.

a series of windows in another large building that are similar to those in a clerestory.

a raised section of roof running down the centre of a railway carriage, with small windows or ventilators.

Collegiate Church. (In Christianity, a collegiate church is a church where the daily office of worship is maintained by a college of Canons; a non-monastic or "Secular" community of clergy, organised as a self-governing corporate body, which may be presided over by a dean or provost. In its governance and religious observance a collegiate church is similar to a cathedral, although a collegiate church is not the seat of a bishop and has no diocesan responsibilities. Collegiate churches were often supported by extensive lands held by the church, or by tithe income from appropriated benefices. They commonly provide distinct spaces for congregational worship and for the choir offices of their clerical community.

Cope, a cope (known in Latin as pluviale 'rain coat' or cappa 'cape') is a liturgical vestment, more precisely a long mantle or cloak, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band or clasp. It may be of any liturgical colour.

(A cope may be worn by any rank of the clergy, and also by lay ministers in certain circumstances. If worn by a bishop, it is generally accompanied by a mitre. The clasp which is often highly ornamented, is called a morse. In art, angels are often shown wearing copes, especially in Early Netherlandish painting).

Cope Chest, storage, for holding a cope.

Corporas Case or Burse, The corporal (arch. corporax, from Latin corpus "body") is a square white linen cloth, now usually somewhat smaller than the breadth of the altar, upon which the chalice and paten, and also the ciborium containing the smaller hosts for the Communion of the laity, are placed during the celebration of the Catholic Eucharist (Mass).

Credence Shelf. (This to hold the Communion vessels). As seen at Weasenham All Saints.

Crocket, Definition of crocket. : an ornament usually in the form of curved and bent foliage used on the edge of a gable or spire.

Crossing, The place where the nave, chancel and transept intersect, this area is often domed.

Cusp, These are the little projecting points on the curves of window and screen tracery, arches etc. which give a foliated, leaf-like appearance. From the Latin cuspis, a point of a spear!

Dalmatic, worn by the deacon at High Mass and by the bishop under his chasuble. It was a tunic with wide sleeves, reaching to below the knees.

Deesis,In Byzantine art, and later Eastern Orthodox art generally, the Deësis or Deisis (Greek: δέησις, "prayer" or "supplication"), is a traditional iconic representation of Christ in Majesty or Christ Pantocrator: enthroned, carrying a book, and flanked by the Virgin Mary and St. John the Baptist, and sometimes other saints.

Dexter, (The term dexter, merely means right and left) The Bible is replete with passages referring to being at the "right hand" of God. Sinister is used to mark that an ordinary or other charge is turned to the heraldic left of the shield. A bend sinister is a bend which runs from the bearer's top left to bottom right, as opposed to top right to bottom left.

Dog-tooth, An ornamental carving of Early English period in the 12th/13th century which looks like a four-leaved flower. One suggestion is that it is based on the dog's tooth violet.

Encaustic tiles, The Victorians invented the process of burning in different coloured clays onto tile or brick, to produce a stencil like effect. In churches built during the 19th century and in others restored and improved by Victorians zealous subjects, these tiles were freely used on floor and wall, on reredos and elsewhere, to produce effects which are very much today a matter of individual taste in others response to them.

Five marks of Christ, On fonts and elsewhere, shown as The wounds of Crucifixion, -to hands, feet, side and recalling Doubting Thomas.

Flint, a stone commonly found on Norfolk fields and featured in many Norfolk churches. The art of fashioning these stones is called "Flint-knapping", stones are often fashioned by knocking two stones together over a leather pad in ones knee or higher thigh!

Flying Buttress, a buttress slanting from a separate column, typically forming an arch with the wall it supports.

Font, A vessel used for baptism ceremonies. Fonts hold consecrated water used in the baptism of newcomers to the Christian church (usually infants). Fonts are usually located at the west end of the church, often near the south door. Fonts are usually of stone, and often lined with lead, the first were low, tub like vessels placed on the floor, though soon raised onto a stone pedestal. There are very few Saxon fonts left, so it makes one think that there couldn't have been many of them. Norman examples are square or circular and supported on pillars, shafts or stems. later fonts still, are octagonal and highly decorative.

Gablet, a small ornamental gable over a buttress or similar feature.

Gallery, Generically speaking a gallery is a platform, raised above the church floor. Galleries were often located at the west end of the church, over the west door, and used to house musicians or singers performing during church services.

Galilee Porches, Western porch of a church.

Gargoyle, a grotesque carved human or animal face or figure projecting from the gutter of a building, typically acting as a spout to carry water clear of a wall.

Girdle, made either of twisted cord (Coloured or white) or else in the form of a narrowsash, gathered the folds of the Alb round the waist and served to keep the stoles of deacon and priest in position. The is mention of a girdle on a list at Stratton Strawless.

Gothic, English Gothic is an architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520. As with the Gothic architecture of other parts of Europe, English Gothic is defined by its pointed arches, vaulted roofs, buttresses, large windows, and spires. The Gothic style was introduced from France, where the various elements had first been used together within a single building at the choir of the Basilique Saint-Denis north of Paris, built by the Abbot Suger and dedicated on 11 June 1144. The earliest large-scale applications of Gothic architecture in England are at Canterbury Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. Many features of Gothic architecture had evolved naturally from Romanesque architecture. This evolution can be seen most particularly at the Norman Durham Cathedral, which has the earliest pointed ribbed high vault known.

Gnomon, the projecting piece on a sundial that shows the time by the position of its shadow.

Groining, this is the creation of a vaulted ceiling, divided into segments by raised, intersecting lines, these lines, between the angled surfaces, being the actual "Groins" found in carved canopies, as well as in roofs. Norfolk roof examples are usually in porches, though there is a fine Early English example in the elegant little chancel at Blakeney!


1. Odd or unnatural in shape, appearance, or character; fantastically ugly or absurd; bizarre.

2. fantastic in the shaping and combination of forms, as in decorative work combining incongruous human and animal figures with scrolls, foliage, etc.


3. Any grotesque object, design, person, or thing.

Grypons, A Grypon/Griffin is a legendary creature, usually portrayed with the head, talons, and wings of an eagle and the body of a lion.

Hagioscope, (another word for a SQUINT).squint is an architectural term denoting a small splayed opening or tunnel at seated eye-level, through an internal masonry dividing wall of a church in an oblique direction (south-east or north-east), to enable one or more worshippers in side-chapels, private manorial chapels, chantry chapels at the east ends of the aisles, or other parts of the church from which the high altar in the chancel was not visible, to view the elevation of the host, (as in Hindringham and Ludham) in Roman Catholic and pre-Reformation usage, the most sacred part of the mass at which point a bell was rung and the congregation was required to make the sign of a cross. Where such areas were separated from the high altar not by a solid wall of masonry but by a transparent parclose screen, a hagioscope was not required as a good view of the high altar was available to all within the sectioned-off area concerned. Where a squint was made in an external wall so that lepers and other non-desirables could see the service without coming into contact with the rest of the populace, they are termed leper windows or lychnoscopes.  

Hatchments, many churches have a diamond shaped board, bearing a coat of arms, some have one or more. The board bears the coat of arms of the family whose coat it is. Dating from the 17th century in age, these boards were carried in the funeral procession of that family members funeral. The composition of the boards followed a formalised pattern, the background is black on the left hand side if the dead person was a husband, black on the right if a wife, if a bachelor, widow or widower, the whole back ground would be black.

Honey-Comb Effect, A style of brick laying where a gap is left open, This is usually on a window such as on the belfry to allow sound to resinate from. Wood Norton.

IHS, The sacred Monogram of the name Jesus. Often seen on gravestones. Examples are at Congham as you enter the gate.

Jesse Window, A common theme in medieval symbology was the Biblical 'Tree of Jesse', a representation of the family history of Jesus. The family tree supposedly began with Jesse, father of King David, as outlined in the Book of Isaiah. The Tree of Jesse was used in medieval stained glass windows, and such windows were naturally caled Jesse windows. The best surviving Jesse Window that I am aware of in Britain is the 13th century example at Selby Abbey, in Yorkshire, there is also one at Horstead Church in Norfolk.

Judas Window, A one-way peephole in a door.

Krakow. or Crakows or crackowes were a style of shoes with extremely long toes very popular in the 15th Century. They were so named because the style was thought to have originated in Kraków, then the capital of Poland. They are also sometimes known as poulaines or pikes, though the term poulaine, as in souliers a la poulaine, "shoes in the Polish fashion", referred to the long pointed beak of the shoe, not the shoe itself. as seen in Medieval drawings,  and not to be muddled with "Winkle Pickers" of the Teddy Boy era.

Kast, a Dutch style of cabinet pattern where some church carvings are from. Possible Aslacton's David and Goliath.

Lancet, A Style of window, tall, and thin. (Looks like a candle)

Lantern, A roof lantern is a day lighting architectural element. Architectural lanterns are atop a larger roof and provide natural light into the space or room below. In contemporary use it is an architectural skylight structure.

Lantern Tower, In architecture, the lantern tower is a tall construction above the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church, with openings through which light from outside can shine down to the crossing. Many lantern towers are usually octagonal, and gives an extra dimension to the decorated interior of the dome.

An affiliated term is the Italian tiburio, derived from the Latin-derived word of tiburium which reflects the often polygonal lantern atop a dome. It is often interspersed with windows both to lighten the load and allow for light to shine.

Lectern, a tall stand with a sloping top to hold a book or notes, from which someone, typically a preacher or lecturer, can read while standing up.

Ledger Stones, these are the large, usually black stones that adorn the church floors. They usually signify the crest of a family and show as a reminder to that said person/ancestry within the area.

Low Side Windows, also know as Leper Squints or Lychnoscopes. Often barred and shuttered, no real explanation is known for the low side window, but a Father Thurston from his Jesuit fastness in Mount Street, London, is left arguing a learned theory about bells. he distinquishes between the "sacring" and the "Sanctus " bell. It was the former, a campana or big bell in the tower or cote, that was sounded at the Elevation, and Father Thurston admits that the pulsetur in uno latere of Archbishop Peckham's oft-quoted decree merely meant that this bell should be solemnly tolled, and not rung in its full swing. but the "Sanctus" bell was a mere hand bell-squilla, tintinnabulum, campanella: and this is said to have been thrust out of the little window and tinkled when the choir reached the Sanctus, so that Laodicean idlers in the churchyard might come in and fulfill what, before the Council of Trent, might pass as the minimum of their Sunday duties. A not dissimilar custom prevails even now at Westminster. This for the benefit of those of our lawgivers who would miss the debate but take part in the division. (Times, 23rd Feb 1938)

Lychnoscopes, Where a squint was made in an external wall so that lepers and other non-desirables could see the service without coming into contact with the rest of the populace, they are termed leper windows or lychnoscopes.  

Maidens Garlands, “maidens’ garlands” made of strips of material, hanging from a hoop, (similar to those of dream catchers); which were hung in the chancel of churches to specifically to commemorate the deaths of young, unmarried women.

Maniple, (manipulis, manipulum, fano, phano) was a narrow double strip of coloured matterial worn on the left arm and reaching the knees.

Mass or Scratch dials, on or near the porch, of many old churches, usually about 6 inches across, though these vary. The three lines meet and a hole is there, a piece of metal or a wooden peg, (see gnomon), are placed there, these acting like a sundial.

Mikvah, A cleansing place.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikveh

Moiety, a building or something that each of two parts into which a thing is or can be divided.

M, MR, Marie Regina, this symbol can be found on the outside of churches (Hoe, Dickleburgh etc; also on some fonts. (Hindringham, Barney etc; )

MU, Mother's Union. Often seen on a parish banner in a church.
Mothers' Union is an international Christian membership charity that aims to demonstrate the Christian faith in action through the transformation of communities worldwide. Started by Mary Sumner. b. 31 December 1828—d. 11 August 1921, aged 92.

Narthex, a recess consisting of the entrance or lobby area.

Nave, the central part of a church building, intended to accommodate most of the congregation. In traditional Western churches it is rectangular, separated from the chancel by a step or rail, and from adjacent aisles by pillars.

Nine Men's Morris. In act II, scene II of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, Queen Titania of Faeries says: The Nine Men's Morris is filled up with mud: And the quaint mazes in the Wanton green. For lack of tread, are indistinguishable. What she was talking about was an intriguing game, generally played with counters on a board set out in a frame pattern of three squares one within the other, with diagonal intersecting lines. Titania's shepherds, as did countrymen in Elizabethan England, carved it out in the turf, thus the quaint maze in the Wanton green. The game though is much older than Shakespeare In the north east corner of Norwich Cathedral Cloister, you can see traces of it scratched out on a stone bench.

North door, the secondary entrance to a church that we mostly now found closed off for a reason, (what was it originally for?) Years ago the South porch door would have been used as a main way in and a side for burials in a graveyard, the North door on occasions such as when fete's festivals were on, over time these were less and the door blocked off or less used.

Oculus, a round window style.

Ossuaries—chambers for storing human bones—are commonly described as places to house skeletal remains when cemeteries were overcrowded, so called Bone Houses.

Overlay, overlay is any superimposed carving over the tracery.


a : a square of linen usually stiffened with cardboard that is used to cover the chalice
b (1) : a heavy cloth draped over a coffin
   (2) : a coffin especially when holding a body

Parapets, A low protective wall along the edge of a roof, bridge, or balcony.

Parvise, over some porches is a Parvise, a room originally used for storage or for visiting priests to stay in, some are used as a quiet room or school.

Patten, Pattens are protective overshoes that were worn in Europe from the Middle Ages until the early 20th century. Pattens were worn outdoors over a normal shoe, had a wooden or later wood and metal sole, and were held in place by leather or cloth bands. There is a sign on Norfolk's Walpole Saint Peter's Church, that states: "Pattens must be taken off before entering the church".

Pax Brede, A small plate of ivory, metal, or wood, with a representation of some religious subject on the face and a projecting handle on the back, formerly used for conveying the Kiss of Peace. It was kissed by the celebrant and then by others who received it in turn.

Perpendicular Period, The final phase of Gothic architecture, the Perpendicular phase spanned the late 14th century to the early 16th century, and slots between the Decorated Gothic and the Tudor periods of architecture.

Peter Pence, (or Denarii Sancti Petri and "Alms of Saint Peter") are donations or payments made directly to the Holy See of the Catholic Church. The practice began under the Saxons in England and spread through Europe. The chest at Bintree has possible slots for this reason.

Pinnacle, A pinnacle is an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret, but afterwards used on parapets at the corners of towers and in many other situations. The pinnacle looks like a small spire. It was mainly used in Gothic architecture.

Piscina, is a shallow stone basin with one of more channels used to receive the water from the priest's ablutions and sometimes also for which the chalice had been rinsed after use!

Pogroms, Pogrom is a Russian word meaning “to wreak havoc, to demolish violently.” Historically, the term refers to violent attacks by local non-Jewish populations on Jews in the Russian Empire and in other countries. The first such incident to be labeled a pogrom is believed to be anti-Jewish rioting in Odessa in 1821.

Prebend, historical the portion of the revenues of a cathedral or collegiate church formerly granted to a canon or member of the chapter as his stipend, the property from which a prebend was derived, or another term for prebendary.

Premonstratensian Abbey. The Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré, also known as the Premonstratensians, the Norbertines and, in Britain and Ireland, as the White Canons (from the colour of their habit), are a religious order of Canons regular of the Catholic Church  founded in Premomtre near Laon in 1120 by Norbert of Xanten, who later became Archbishop of Magdeburg.  Premonstratensians are designated by O.Praem. (Ordo Praemonstratensis) following their name.

Presbytery, is where the priest conduct liturgy such as Mass.

Profane use is a term used in the Roma Catholic Church to refer to closed parish churches ilding to another party. In this context, Profane does not refer to swearing, but rather to the older definition of those things that take place outside the temple.

Pulpits, first thought to appear in churches in the fourteenth century. They may be attached to walls, pier or screen, some, on tapered octagonal legs, starting thin at the floor and widening at the place that one can stand, these called "Hour-Glass Pulpits", the term hour glass coming from an instrument, that lit. The preacher would know by this such instrument that an hour of preaching had passed. This practice of fitting Hour-Glasses to pulpits continued to the date of the Revolution in 1688.

PYX, A pyx or pix (Latin: pyxis, transliteration of Greek: πυξίς, boxwood receptacle, from πύξος, box tree) is a small round container used in the Catholic, Old Catholic and Anglican Churches to carry the consecrated host Eucharist), to the sick or those otherwise unable to come to a church in order to receive Holy Communion. The term can also be used in archaeology and art history to describe small round lidded boxes designed for any purpose from antiquity or the Middle Ages, such as those used to hold coins for the Trial of the Pyx in England.

Quire, where the choir sit. (Sacred area).

Ram, seen in churches as in sent to save Abraham's son, as a sacrifice like Jesus with all men from God!

Reredos, of back-piece of the alter, is usually in the form of panelling or some other simple decoration.

Retable, A retable is a structure or element placed either on or immediately behind and above the altar or communion table of a church. At the minimum it may be a simple shelf for candles behind an altar, but it can also be a large and elaborate structure. A retable which incorporates sculptures or painting is often referred to as an altar piece. According to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online, "A 'retable' is distinct from a "reredos"; while the reredos typically rises from ground level behind the altar, the retable is smaller, standing either on the back of the altar itself or on a pedestal behind it. Many altars have both a reredos and a retable." This distinction is not always upheld in common use, and the terms are often confused or used as synonyms. In several foreign languages, such as French (also using 'retable'), the usage is different, usually equating the word with the English 'reredos' or 'altarpiece', and this often leads to confusion, and incorrect usage in translated texts. The Medieval Latin retrotabulum (modernized retabulum) was applied to an architectural feature set up at the back of an altar, and generally taking the form of a screen framing a picture, carved or sculptured work in wood or stone, or mosaic, or of a movable feature such as the Pala Pala d'oro on Saint Mark's Basilica, Venice, of gold, jewels and enamels. The non-English word "retable" therefore often refers to what should in English be called a reredos. The situation is further complicated by the frequent modern addition of free-standing altars in front of the old integrated altar, to allow the celebrant to face the congregation, or be closer to it. Dossal is another term that may overlap with both retable and reredos; today it usually means an altarpiece painting rising at the back of the altar to which it is attached, or a cloth usually hanging on the wall directly behind the altar.

Rood, a crucifix, especially one positioned above the rood screen of a church or on a beam over the entrance to the chancel, usually where the choir/quire sits.

Rood Screen, usually hand painted as with Saints etc before the Sanctuary. Rood screens were probably made in a workshop in Norwich, a minor feature of the screens of considerable interest is the carving, particularly of the spandrels below the middle rail.

Sanctuary, The word “sanctuary” means “sacred place”.

Sanctuary Lamp, a candle or small light left lit in the sanctuary of a church, especially (in Catholic churches) a red lamp indicating the presence of the reserved Sacrament. As at Whissonsett.

See, 'See' as a noun means "the seat or office of a bishop". 'Holy See' means the see of the bishop of Rome. Therefore, the term refers to the city-state of Vatican because it happens to be the territory in which the Pope resides, in local Norfolk area, Bishop Herbert de Losinga transferred the see to Norwich, when building the cathedral there.

Sedilia, a seat, is the name given to the seats used by the celebrants during the pauses in the mass. They generally number three, One for the priest, The Deacon and the sub Deacon.

Shift, Undershirt or vest, term most often found in relation to relics, ie., Relics of saints occur not infrquently. The "shift of Saint Edmund" was kept in a crystal at Saint Edmund Norwich, and the "shift of Etheldreda" in a small chest at Etheldreda Thetford. Colby possessed a finger of SaintGiles in a reliquary made in the form of a silver hand, and North Lynn claimed The pastoral staff of Saint Thomas of Canterbury. There were relics of Holy Cross in crosses at South Walsham Saint Mary. Woodnorton All Saints and Great Ryburgh. Horstead earlier claimed to have a cross with relic of the cross of Saint Andrew, but a latter correction transfers the relic to Horsham Saint Faith and in so doing drops all mention of the relic, stating merely that the cross was one shaped like that of Saint Andrew. There were un-named relics at Saint Bartholomew, Norwich (eighty relics of saints enclosed in a pax-brede).

Shrift, the imposition of penance by a priest on a penitent after confession. absolution or remission of sins granted after confession and penance. confession to a priest.

Slype, Slype, in architecture, covered passageway in a medieval English cathedral or monastery. The slype may lead from either the transept or the nave of the church proper to either the chapter house (the monks' assembly room) or the deanery (the residence of the dean).

Stoups, a tray used for Holy Water, often seen as a sink set into a wall! This can be inside or outside. One outside is seen set into the north wall of Hockwold they are very plain in execution.

Spandrels, a church term for the highly decorated wood effect on the rood screens, furniture etc.

Steeple, Image result for church steeples meaning

A steeple, in architecture, is a tall tower on a building, topped by a spire and often incorporating a belfry and other components. Steeples are very common on Christian churches and cathedrals and the use of the term generally connotes a religious structure.

Stole, a narrow strip of coloured material was worn by the deacon over the left shoulder and crossed under the right arm and by the priest behind the neck and crossed below the breast. A subdeacon did not wear a stole.

Superaltars, a consecrated portable stone slab for use on an unconsecrated altar.

Terce, a service forming part of the Divine Office of the Western Christian Church, traditionally said (or chanted) at the third hour of the day (i.e. 9 a.m.).

Te Deum, The Te Deum is a Latin Christian hymn composed in the 4th century.

Tower, may refer to: The bell tower of a church-building. Steeple (architecture).

Transepts, one of the two parts of a church that are built across the main part and make the church   form the shape of a cross.

Triptychs, a picture or relief carving on three panels, typically hinged together vertically and used as an altar piece. 


Tunic, (tunica) worn by the subdeacon at High Mass, by the bishop under his dalmatic and occasionally by the acolyte who carries the cross.

Tympanum, space over head of a door, or in head of filled in arch, plain or carved.

Vault, (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.

Vestibule, You often find vestibules in churches, because they help keep heat from escaping every time someone enters or exits. The noun vestibule, pronounced “VES-tih-bule,” probably comes from the Latin word vestibulum, which means“ entrance court.”

Vestments, vestment. A vestment is a garment worn at special ceremonies by a clergy member. ... Vest can also be a verb that describes putting on clothing, typically garments related to a religious ceremony. Both vest and vestment come from the Latin word vestimentum, meaning “clothing, clothes.”

Vestry, A room in or a building attached to a church, in which the vestments, and sometimes liturgical objects, are kept; sacristy. Or (in some churches) a room in or a building attached to a church, used as a chapel, for prayer meetings, for the Sunday school, etc.

Vicarage, A vicarage, or vicarage house is a residence provided by the church for the priest. They were usually located near the church and were sometimes quite elaborate and other times inadequate. Dating from medieval times, they were often rebuilt and modernized. In the second half of the 20th century, most large vicarages were replaced with more modern and simpler houses.

Visigothic, a style of window looking towards the shape of a "Keyhole"

Wafer Oven, the only known one in Norfolk is at Saint Margaret's Church, at Felbrigg, its purpose is heating/making Communion Wafers.

Wodewoses, Wodewoses are a caveman type beast with a club usually thrown over one shoulder.

Wyverns, a winged two-legged dragon with a barbed tail.

Ymagines, Vestments are sometimes adorned with figures which include those of The Passion of Our Lord, the Holy Trinity, the stort of the Epiphany, the Annunciation, the Apostles Archangels and Flower, also Gold Angels, these are called Ymagines.






Abbess, a woman who is in charge of a convent (=a religious community of women)

Abbot ,a man who is in charge of an abbey.

Archbishop, a priest of the highest rank in some Christian churches who is responsible for all the churches in a particular area, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the most senior priest in the Church of England.

Archbishopric, the rank of archbishop.

Archdeacon, a priest of a high rank in the Anglican Church whose job is to help a bishop.

Bishop, a Christian priest with a senior position who is responsible for all the churches in a particular area.

Bishopric, the job of a bishop.

Canon, a Christian priest who works in a cathedral.

Cardinal, a priest with a very senior position in the Roman Catholic Church, below that of the Pope.

Chaplain, a Christian priest or minister who works in an institution such as a school or a hospital, or in the army.

Chaplaincy, the job of a chaplain, or the place where a chaplain works.

Chapter, all the priests who belong to a cathedral.

Churchman, a man who is a priest, minister, bishop etc;

Churchwarden, someone who looks after the property and money of a church in the Church of England.

Clergy, the people who lead religious services, especially Christian priests. A man who leads religious services is sometimes called a clergyman and a woman who leads religious services is sometimes called a clergywoman.

Cleric, formal old-fashioned a member of the clergy.

Clerical, relating to priests.

The cloth, mainly literary Christian priests and ministers considered as a group.

Curate, an Anglican priest who helps a more senior priest.

Deacon, someone with a position just below that of a priest in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, or Orthodox churches.

Deacon, someone whose job is to help a minister (=a priest) in some Protestant churches.

Deaconess, a woman with a position just below that of a priest in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, or Orthodox churches.

Dean, a senior Anglican priest in a cathedral or other important church.

Dominee, south African a predicant.

Dominican, A priest, monk, or nun who belongs to a Christian religious group started by St Dominic.

Ecclesiastic, formal a Christian priest, minister etc;

Elder, a member of a Christian church or other religious organization who is not a priest but who is in a position of authority.

Eminence, formal used for referring to a cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church.

Episcopacy, the bishops of a church.

Episcopal, relating to bishops.

Father, used for talking to or about a priest, especially a Roman Catholic priest.

Fr, Father: used before the name of a priest.

High priest, the most important or powerful priest.

High priestess, the most important or powerful female priest.

The Holy See, formal the Pope and the officials who work for him at the Vatican

The Inquisition, the organization that tried to find and punish people who did not agree with the Roman Catholic Church, especially from the 15th to the 17th centuries. The Inquisition used very cruel methods that sometimes killed people.

Inquisitor, a member of the Inquisition.

Jesuit, a priest who belongs to a Christian religious organization called the Society of Jesus that was started in 1534.

Legate, an official representative, especially of a pope (=the leader of the Roman Catholic Church) or a government, who is sent to a foreign country.

Living, the position of a priest belonging to the Church of England, or the income that they get from it.

Man of God, formal a priest or minister.

Man of the cloth, formal a priest or minister.

Mgr abbreviation, Monsignor.

Minister, in some Protestant churches, someone whose job is to lead worship and perform other duties.

Ministry, the period of time when someone is a church minister.

The ministry, the profession or work of a church minister.

The ministry, church ministers considered as a group.

Moderator, a senior religious leader in a Protestant church.

Monsignor, a way of talking to or about a priest of high rank in the Roman Catholic Church.

Mother Superior, a woman who is in charge of a convent.

Mother Teresa, a nun (=a woman who is a member of a religious community) who took care of poor and ill people in Calcutta, India.

Msgr abbreviation, Monsignor.

Nuncio, an official representative of the Pope (=the leader of the Roman Catholic Church) in a foreign country.

Order, the rank of a priest or minister.

Padre, a priest who performs religious services in the armed forces.

Parson, old-fashioned a priest or minister in charge of a parish (=a small area), especially in the Church of England.

Pastor, a priest or minister in some Christian churches.

Pastoral, relating to the work that a priest or other religious leader does to help and advise people.

Patriarch, a religious leader in one of the Orthodox Christian churches.

Pontiff, formal the Pope.

Pope, the leader of the Roman Catholic Church.

Preacher, someone whose job is to give religious speeches or to lead religious ceremonies in some Christian churches.

Predikant, a priest in the Dutch Protestant Church in South Africa.

Prelate, an official of high rank in the Christian Church such as a bishop or a cardinal.

Priest, someone whose job is to lead worship and perform other duties and ceremonies in some Christian churches.

Priesthood, all the priests of a particular religion or country.

The priesthood, the work and responsibility of being a priest.

Priestly, relating to the life and work of a priest.

Primate, the name in some religions or churches for a priest of the highest rank in a particular region or country.

Prior, a man who is in charge of a priory.

Prioress, a woman who is in charge of a priory.

Provost, the priest in charge of a cathedral.

Rector, a priest in an Anglican church, who in the past was paid directly by the people in his parish.

Rev. abbreviation.

Reverend, Revd, British Rev.

Reverend, a title used for some Christian priests and ministers.

Reverend Mother, a title used for a Mother Superior in charge of a convent (=a religious group of women) in the Christian Church.

Sexton, someone whose job is to look after a church and the buildings connected with it.

Suffragan, a bishop who is chosen to help another bishop with a higher rank.

Vicar, a priest in the Church of England.

Vicar, a priest in the US Episcopal Church


"Layman" redirects here. For the community, see Layman, Ohio. For the surname, see Layman (Surname). For the butterfly, see Amauris Albimaculata.

A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject. In religious organisations, the laity consists of all members who are not members of the Clergy. usually including any non-ordained members of religious institutes, e.g. a nun or lay preacher.

In Christian cultures, the term lay priest was sometimes used in the past to refer to a secular priests, a diocesan priest who is not a member of a religious institute. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints uses the term "Lay Priesthood" to emphasise that local congregational leaders are unpaid. Terms such as lay priest, lay clergy and lay nun were also once used in Buddhist cultures to indicate ordained persons who continued to live in the wider community instead of retiring to a monastry. In the context of specialised professions, the term lay is often used to refer to those who are not members of that profession.





 I was going to do a separate page on symbols in churches, but after finding this section of manuscript, I haven't a chance.

Hugh of Fouilloy or Hugo de Folieto (b. c. 1100, d. c. 1172), prior of St.-Nicholas-de-Regny, Aviarium, or De avibus, consisting of 60 chapters in two sections: 37 chapters of mostly scriptural exegesis, drawing on the Bible and the Greek Physiologus. The first 11 chapters are on the dove, with reference to Psalm 67: 14. The next 11 chapters are on the winds and the hawk, followed by 15 chapters on the turtledove and the sparrow and their nesting places in the palm and cedar (ff. 1r-16r); 23 chapters, each devoted to a type of bird, taken from medieval sources such as the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville, the De natura rerum of Hrabanus Maurus (ff. 16r-43v);ff. 44r-57v: A Bestiary, in the Dicta Chrysostomi form, so-called because of its medieval attribution to John Chrysostom (b. c. 349, d. 407), Patriarch of Constantinople, though the text is thought to have originated in France around 1000.Decoration: One full-page diagram in a frame and central roundel in colours and gold (f. 2v). Numerous large miniatures in colours (29 of the aviarium; 24 of the bestiary). 1 large puzzle initial in blue and red with red and blue penwork decoration (f. 1*r). Large initials in blue with red penwork decoration or pen-flourishing, or in red, usually with blue penwork decoration or pen-flourishing. Highlighting of letters in red.The subjects of the images are: f. 1v: A dove ('columba') and a hawk ('accipiter') in a frame with columns and arches;f. 2v: A diagram of the dove in Christian doctrine, with a large circle in the middle containing a golden dove, and 4 circles at the corners, all with inscriptions on the significance of the dove in the Old and New Testaments;ff. 4r: The dove of Christ, the dove of David and the dove of Noah;f. 7r: The Virgin, standing, holding the Christ Child in one hand and a bowl of fruit (?) in the other, and to the left, a kneeling monk;f. 7v: An eagle ('aquilo');f. 10v: A palm tree ('palma');f. 12r: A turtle dove ('turturis');f. 13v: A cedar tree ('cedrus') with seated figure on a chair in the centre, surrounded by 6 birds in nests;f. 16r: A pelican on a nest biting her breast, with four chicks beneath her ('mors pelicani');f. 17r: A raven ('niticorax');f. 18r: A crow ('corvus');f. 20r: A cockerel ('gallus');f. 22r: A large grey bird with a horseshoe in its mouth; f. 26r: A vulture ('vultur');f. 27r: A crane ('grue');f. 28r: A kite ('milvus'); f. 28v: A swallow ('yrundinis');f. 30r: A stork ('ciconia');f. 30v: A blackbird ('merula');f. 31v: An owl ('bubo');f. 32r: A jackdaw ('gragulus');f. 34r: A heron ('ardea');f. 34v: A caladrius bird predicting the outcome of illness, with two figures lying ill;f. 35v: A phoenix ('fenix');f. 36r: A partridge ('perdix'); f. 37r: A quail ('coturnix'); f. 37v: A hoopoe ('huppupa');f. 38r: A swan ('cignus');f. 39r: A peacock ('pavo');f. 41r: An eagle ('aquila');f. 42v: A coot ('fulica');f. 43r: An ibis ('hybis');f. 44r: A lion;f. 44v: A panther and a dragon; f. 46r: A unicorn is killed by two knights, one with a sword and the other with a lance, and places its paws in a maiden's lap, with two saddled horses behind the knights, tethered to a tree;f. 47r: A siren pulling a sailor from a boat by the hair, while another sailor stops his ears to avoid hearing the siren's song, with a centaur holding a bow below;f. 47v: A crocodile with a small creature in its stomach ('ydrus cocodrillo');f. 48r: A hyena;f. 48v: Elephants, a dragon and a mandrake;f. 49v: A wild ass ('onager');f. 50r: Above, monkeys, one holding its young ('simia'); below, a hunter spearing an 'antula' or 'aptolops';f. 50v: A lizard or dragon ('lacerta'); f. 51r: Above, a saw-fish ('serra') and a ship; below, vipers ('vipera') mating and the female giving birth, with the young gnawing through her side;f. 51v: Deer ('cervus');f. 52r: A goat ('capra') climbing a mountain and a traveller ('viator') with a stick following behind;f. 53r: A fox ('vulpe') lying on its back, with two birds attacking, one pecking its tongue;f. 53v: An asida ('ostrich') with eggs;f. 54r: Beavers ('castor') with a hunter;f. 54v: Ants ('formica') walking in a row from a building to a field of grain;f. 55v: Hedgehogs ('herinacius') climbing a tree and eating fruit;f. 56r: Above, a salamander and below, a weasel ('mustela');f. 56v: A basilisk ('basilicus');f. 57r: A dragon and an elephant;

Therefore I will keep it for my own reference.





Some of the things that can be seen on this site are:
Aisle, Flint, Font, Gallery, Altar, Flying Buttress, Gargoyle, Annunciation, Galilee Porches, Antiphonal, Lectern,Gothic, Grotesque, Apse, Gnomon, Hatchments, IHS, Ambulatory, Glossary, ruined churches, seven sacrament fonts, stained coloured windows, churches of Norfolk, A-Z meaning of church list, religious or pilgrim badges, carvings, naves, alters, graffiti, door knobs, Roman, Saxon, videos.





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